Netherlands

House of RepresentativesSenate

House of Representatives

Election results

Data on parliamentary elections, including the background, candidates, voter turnout, results and the formation of the new legislature. By default the latest election results are displayed. Select a date to view results from previous elections

Background

Election date(s) The date when elections started and ended for directly or indirectly elected parliaments/chambers. The date of appointments for appointed parliaments/chambers.
22.11.2023
Timing of election Timing of election: Upon normal expiry; Early elections; Delayed elections
Early election
Expected date of next elections The expected date at which the next elections should take place, based on law or practice.
30.11.2027
Number of seats at stake Number of seats contested at the elections. Where the parliament/chamber is fully renewed, this number is usually identical to the statutory number of members. Where the parliament/chamber is partially renewed or appointed, the number of seats at stake is usually less than the total number of members.
150
Scope of elections Scope of elections: Full renewal; Partial renewal.
Full renewal

Candidates

Total number of candidates Total number of people who registered as candidates for election. Does not include people who stood as candidates to become "substitute members".
1,128
Notes
Candidates are not required to specify their sex on the list of candidates. Out of the 1,128 candidates who stood at the 2023 elections, 417 specified male and 210 specified female, while 501 others left the field empty.
Number of male candidates Number of male candidates
417
Number of female candidates Number of female candidates
210
Percentage of women candidates The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of women candidates by the total number of candidates.
18.62%
Number of parties contesting the election This field may include either the number of parties contesting the election, or the number of coalitions/electoral alliance.
26
Number of other candidates Number of other candidates
501

Voter turnout

Registration Number of people registered to vote
13,473,750
Votes Number of people who actually voted
10,475,139
Voter turnout The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of people who actually voted by the number of people registered to vote
77.74%

Results

About the election Short description of the context and results of the election.
The Party for Freedom (PVV), led by Mr. Geert Wilders, became the largest party in the 150-member House of Representatives after snap elections held in November 2023. The PVV took 37 seats, up from 24 in 2021. Three other parties won more than 20 seats (see note 1) while 11 others took fewer than 9 seats. The newly elected House of Representatives, which held its first session on 14 December, comprised 89 men, 60 women, and the world’s first non-binary member according to IPU records.

The 2023 snap elections were held over one year before they were constitutionally due. They followed the collapse of the coalition government (see note 2), led by the country’s longest-serving Prime Minister Mark Rutte (VVD), over its migration policies. Mr. Rutte announced that he would not stand in the snap elections. The key electoral issues in 2023 included immigration, living standards and climate change.

Note 1:
The Labour Party (PvdA, led by Mr. Frans Timmermans, former European Union Commissioner for Climate Action), the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD, led by Ms. Dilan Yeşilgöz-Zegerius and New Social Contract (NSC, led by Mr. Pieter Herman Omtzigt). The NSC is a splinter party of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), which took five seats in 2023.

Note 2: 
The outgoing coalition government comprised the VVD, CDA, Democrats 66 (D66) and the Christian Union.
Number of parties winning seats The number of parties which won parliamentary representation in the given election.
15
Percentage of parties winning seats The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of parties which won parliamentary representation by the number of parties contesting the election.
57.69%
Percentage of seats won by largest party or coalition The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of seats won by the largest party by the number of seats at stake in the election.
24.67%
Parties or coalitions winning seats
Political groups winning seats breakdown
Political group Total
Party for Freedom (PVV) 37
Labour Party (PvdA) 25
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) 24
New Social Contract (NSC) 20
Democrats 66 (D66) 9
Farmer-Citizen Movement (BoerBurgerBeweging, BBB) 7
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) 5
Socialist Party (SP) 5
Forum for Democracy (FvD) 3
Party for the Animals (PvdD) 3
Christian Union 3
Reformed Political Party (SGP) 3
DENK 3
Volt 2
JA21 1
Members elected, by sex
Number of men elected
89
Number of women elected
60
Number of other elected The total number of other parliamentarians in this parliament/chamber following the election or renewal, regardless of their modes of designation.
1
Percentage of women elected The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of women elected in the election and the number of seats at stake at the election.
40%
Women Directly Elected
60

New legislature

Total number of men after the election The total number of male parliamentarians in this parliament/chamber following the election or renewal, regardless of their modes of designation.
89
Total number of women after the election The total number of female parliamentarians in this parliament/chamber following the election or renewal, regardless of their modes of designation.
60
Percentage of women after the election The percentage is calculated by dividing the total number of women in this parliament/chamber by the current number of members.
40%
Total number of other parliamentarians after the election The total number of other parliamentarians in this parliament/chamber following the election or renewal, regardless of their modes of designation.
1
First-term parliamentarians The number of members who are assuming their parliamentary mandate for the first time following the election or renewal, regardless of their mode of designation.
67
Percentage of first-term parliamentarians The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of first-term parliamentarians by the number of seats at stake in the election.
44.67%
Date of the first session The date when the newly elected parliament/chamber was convened for the first time. It may be different from the date when members were sworn in.
06.12.2023
First Speaker of the new legislature
First Speaker of the new legislature First name of the Speaker of the new legislature following the election or renewal.
Martin Bosma (Male)
Political party
Party for Freedom (PVV)
Date of election
14.12.2023